However, it is important to remember that the Paris Agreement is not static. Instead, it aims to support countries` national efforts over time, meaning that current commitments are the ground, not the ceiling, for climate change ambitions. Heavy lifting – further reducing emissions by 2030 and 2050 – still needs to be done, and the agreement provides the tools to ensure this happens. These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those adopted in other international agreements. While the system does not carry financial penalties, the requirements are aimed at easily tracking the progress of individual nations and promoting a sense of global group pressure, which discourages any hesitation between countries that might consider it. As president, I have an obligation and that obligation applies to the American people. The Paris Agreement would undermine our economy, hamper our workers, weaken our sovereignty, impose unacceptable legal risks and penalise us permanently compared to other countries in the world. It is time to get out of the Paris Agreement – (Applause) – and pursue a new agreement that protects the environment, our businesses, our citizens and our country. While the United States and Turkey are not part of the agreement, as countries have not declared their intention to leave the 1992 UNFCCC as «Annex 1» countries, they will continue to be required under the UNFCCC to prepare national communications and an annual greenhouse gas inventory.  The same nations that are asking us to stay in the agreement are the countries that together cost America billions of dollars through harsh trade practices and, in many cases, lax contributions to our critical military alliance. You see what`s going on. This is pretty obvious for those who want to keep an open mind.
Although the agreement was welcomed by many people, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism also emerged. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of «promises» or goals and not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud without «no deeds, only promises» and believes that only an interterritorial tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  It`s time to put Youngstown, Ohio, Detroit, Michigan and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania – along with many, many other places in our great country – ahead of Paris, France. It`s time to make America grow again. (Applause) Thank you very much. Thank you very much. Thank you very much. At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was created with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument to tackle climate change from 2020.
The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  International agreements are initially signed to signal their intention to comply, but they become binding only through ratification. It may be an act of Parliament or another formal adoption. Different countries have different processes. Former US President Barack Obama used controversial executive powers to ratify the Paris Agreement in 2016. We owe no apologies to other nations for our environmental responsibility. . .