The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was a non-aggression pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, allowing these two powers to divide Poland among themselves. The pact was signed in Moscow on 23 August 1939 by German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov and was officially known as the non-aggression treaty between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.   At the time of the German rapprochement, many historians agreed that the dismissal of Maxim Litvinov, whose Jewish ethnic origin was poorly regarded by Nazi Germany, removed an obstacle to negotiations with Germany.        Stalin immediately told Molotov to «cleanse the service of the Jews.»    In the face of Litvinov`s earlier attempts to form an anti-fascist coalition linked to the doctrine of collective security with France and Great Britain and a pro-Western orientation, according to The Kremlin`s criteria, his dismissal indicated the existence of a Soviet option of rapprochement with Germany.  Similarly, Molotov`s appointment served as a signal to Germany that the Soviet Union would be open to offers.  The dismissal also signalled to France and Great Britain the existence of an opportunity for negotiations with Germany.   A British official wrote that litvinov`s dismissal also meant the loss of an admirable technician or shock absorber, but that Molotov`s modus operandi was «really Bolshevik, diplomatic or cosmopolitan.»  Carr argued that the replacement of Litvav by Molotov by the Soviet Union on 3 May 1939 did not suggest an irrevocable shift towards alignment with Germany, but that it was Stalin`s way of engaging in difficult negotiations with the British and French by appointing a hard man to the Office of the Commissioner of Foreign Affairs.  Historian Albert Resis stated that Litvinov`s release gave the Soviets the freedom to conduct faster German negotiations, but that they did not abandon the Franco-British talks.  Derek Watson argued that Molotov could get the best deal with Britain and France because he was not in charge of collective security baggage and could negotiate with Germany.  Geoffrey Roberts argued that Litvinov`s ouster had helped the Soviets in the Franco-British talks, because Litvinov doubted or possibly opposed these discussions.  10 US Assistance Roosevelt helped the Allies: Lend-Lease – 1939 «slow» War Material to cash-strapped Great Britain Atlantic Charter US secretly meets with England to commit to defeating Germany On 24.
August Pravda and Izvestia reported on the public parts of the pact, complete with the now infamous image of Molotov signing the treaty with a smiling Stalin.  On the same day, the German diplomat Hans von Herwarth, whose grandmother was Jewish, informed the Italian diplomat Guido Relli and the Chargé d`affaires Charles Bohlen, in the United States, of the secret protocol on vital interests in the «spheres of influence» assigned to the countries, but did not reveal the rights of annexation for «territorial and political reorganization».   The public conditions of the agreement thus went beyond the terms of an ordinary non-aggression treaty – which required the two sides to consult and not assist a third party who was attacking – that Gunther hear a joke that Stalin had joined the anti-communist pact.  Time magazine called the pact a «Communazi Pact» several times until April 1941 and its participants «Communazis».      Despite a warning from the Comintern, German tensions increased when the Soviets declared in September that they had to enter Poland to «protect» their Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnic brethren from Germany.